Gary Anderson & Gregory C. Tassey, The Economic Benefits from Improved Cyber Security Infrastructure (NIST Economic Analysis Office, Economic & Policy Analysis Brief No. 13-3) (May 22, 2013) (full-text).
Leading government officials have warned that a "cyber 9/11" could happen at any time. A coordinated terrorist cyber attack on a massive scale could potentially shut down the domestic economy. Even without such a pervasive assault, banks, utilities, and critical infrastructure industries are under constant attacks from nation states and other groups. It is no longer a matter of if power grids, telecommunications networks, chemical plants, large banks, water supplies, and other critical infrastructure will be attacked, but rather when will the next one occur and who will be the target.