"A 'signal' implies signaling — that is, the conveyance of information. To convey information to a recipient a physical carrier, such as an electromagnetic wave, is needed. Thus, in order to be a 'signal,' as required by the claim, some carrier upon which the information is embedded is required."
A signal is
|“||a type of message, the text of which consists of one or more letters, words, characters, signal flags, visual displays, or special sounds with prearranged meaning, and which is conveyed or transmitted by visual, acoustical, or electrical means.||”|
- ↑ In re Nuijten, 500 F.3d 1346, 84 U.S.P.Q.2d (BNA) 1495 (Fed. Cir. 2007) (full-text).
- ↑ The U.S. Army Concept Capability Plan for Cyberspace Operations 2016-2028, at 71.