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There are twelve root operators in the Domain Name System that operate 13 root name servers where computers can locate the root DNS information, and these addresses are known by their assigned letters, A-M. All thirteen addresses were formerly servers located in 13 locations in the United States and Europe, but now six of the thirteen have distributed the location of their servers throughout the world. When an Internet user seeks a specific domain name, the root name server tells the system where to find the requested TLD.
The information contained in these root name servers determines what TLDs will be available when people look to these servers for that level of domain name information. All of the root servers look to only one location to get the definitive file for the root.