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The Public Cryptography Study Group of the American Council on Education (ACE) was assembled in 1980 at the request of NSA. The group accepted the premise that “some information contained in cryptology manuscripts could be inimical to the national security of the United States.” It recommended a voluntary rather than statutory solution to this problem. However, some researchers, including one member of the ACE group, felt that even voluntary restraints would affect the quality and direction of basic research in computer science, engineering, and mathematics.