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Presidential Decision Directive 23 (PDD/NSC23), Foreign Access To Remote Sensing Space Capabilities (Mar. 10, 1994) (full-text).
This Directive governs the export of remote sensing equipment, satellites, and services. It was an effort by the intelligence community, the Department of Defense, and the Department of State to deal with the effect of the Persian Gulf War on demand for remote sensing and the end of Cold War expenditures for government satellite systems.
PDD-23 attempted to manage the imaging satellite market to align foreign use of remote sensing satellites with U.S. national interests and to use foreign demand to maintain a robust U.S. satellite industrial capability. The directive allows the Secretary of Commerce to limit image collection and distribution by licensed remote sensing satellites for national security reasons, the so-called shutter control provision. The policy outlined in PDD/NSC 23 also promotes the remote sensing industry and provides for low cost access to the images for the United States.
- James Andrew Lewis, Remote Sensing Satellites and Presidential Decision Directive-23, at 1 (May 2, 2003) (full-text).