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An open system is
|“||[a] set of one or more computers, the associated software, peripherals, terminals, human operators, physical processes, information transfer means, etc., that forms an autonomous whole capable of processing and/or transferring information that complies with the requirements of OSI standards.||”|
|“||an environment in which system access is not controlled by persons who are responsible for the content of electronic records that are on the system.||”|
|“|| [a] system that implements sufficient open standards for interfaces, services, and supporting formats to enable properly engineered modules to be utilized across a wide range of systems with minimal changes, to interoperate with other modules on local and remote systems, and to interact with users in a style that facilitates portability. An open system is characterized by the following:
An open systems is
|“||a system that is designed to allow ready interconnection and interoperation with other systems.||”|
|“||[a] system that implements specifications maintained by an open, public consensus process for interfaces, services, and support formats, to enable properly engineered components to be utilized across a wide range of systems with minimal change, to interoperate with other components on local and remote systems, and to interact with users in a manner that facilitates portability.||”|
An open system is an RFID system that allows entities from different enterprises to access information related to RFID tags used in the system. Open systems use an inter-enterprise subsystem to share information between entities.
An open system allows system components to be added, removed, modified, replaced, or sustained by consumers or different manufacturers in addition to the manufacturer that developed the system. It also allows independent suppliers to build components that can plug into the existing system through the open connections. Fundamental elements of an open systems approach include:
- designing a system with modular components that isolate functionality. This makes the system easier to develop, maintain, and modify because components can be changed without majorly impacting the remainder of the system.
- developing and using open, publicly-available standards for the key interfaces, or connections, between the components. Interface standards specify the physical, power, data, and/or other connections between components. All interfaces in a system do not need to use open standards for a system to be considered "open," and it can be costly and impractical to manage hundreds or thousands of interfaces within a system. Rather, open standards should be identified at key interfaces between the modules that are likely to change, may frequently fail or need to be replaced, or are needed for interoperability.
- obtaining data rights to interfaces when open standards are not available. DOD describes the acquisition of technical data, such as design drawings, specifications, and standards, as critical to enabling the department opportunities for competition for modification and sustainment of systems throughout their life cycles.
Incorporating an open systems approach prior to the start of development increases the likelihood that open systems considerations are included in program requirements and inform a program's future competitive strategy, which can significantly reduce upgrade and maintenance costs later. Introducing this approach later in a program's life cycle, such as a planned modification or upgrade, is more difficult, complex, and costly to do as it may require significant modifications to an already-developed system.
Some of the benefits of open systems are shown in Figure 1.
PC industry Edit
In 1981, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) introduced its personal computer, which was designed as an open system. IBM used already existing components, including the monitor from another IBM computer, and commercially-available, off-the-shelf parts such as software, floppy drives, and an Intel processor. Upon releasing the personal computer, IBM openly published its hardware and software specifications, allowing other manufacturers to develop compatible software and peripheral hardware, such as the monitor, keyboard, and mouse.
Since the time IBM publicly released the specifications of its personal computer, the market has grown exponentially in terms of manufacturers developing computers and related devices such as printers and scanners, third-party suppliers developing software applications that can be used on the computers, and consumers purchasing computers, software, and peripherals. Increased competition and technological innovation brought on by the use of an open systems approach, among other things, has helped make computers affordable to consumers. For example, according to IBM, one of its predecessors to the personal computer sold for $90,000; its first personal computer was sold in retail stores for $1,565.10 In the present marketplace, multiple computer manufacturers are developing computers that have 500 times the processing power of IBM's early personal computer and sell for as little as $400.
The personal computer industry has evolved over the past three decades to meet consumer demand and to leverage new technologies developed by the large number of manufacturers and suppliers competing in the marketplace.
- ↑ FIPS 188, §3.2.
- ↑ 21 C.F.R., Part 11, §11.3(9).
- ↑ Capstone Requirements Document: Global Information Grid (GIG) 78-79 (JROCM 134-01) (Aug. 30, 2001) (unclassified) (full-text).
- ↑ Defense Acquisition University, Glossary, at B-126 (13th ed. Nov. 2009) (full-text).
- ↑ Guidelines for Securing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems, Glossary, at B-2.
See also Edit
- "Overview" section: Defense Acquisitions: DOD Efforts to Adopt Open Systems for Its Unmanned Aircraft Systems Have Progressed Slowly, at 3, 4.
- "PC industry" section: Id. at 7-9.