The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a strategic defensive organization that consists of the following member nations: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
NATO approved a Cyber Defense Policy in January 2008 to provide direction to its member nations to protect key information system and support efforts to counter cyber attacks. Specifically, the policy establishes the Cyber Defence Management Authority, which has authority for managing cyber defense crises, to include directing the NATO Computer Incident Response Capability (NCIRC). NATO also encourages the creation of state-sponsored cyber-defense authorities to exchange information, define the scope of mutual support in the event of an identified cyber incident, and to identify communications and information systems that handle information deemed critical to the alliance.
- Cyberspace: United States Faces Challenges in Addressing Global Cybersecurity and Governance, at 15-16.