National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee, NSTAC Report to the President on International Communications (Aug. 16, 2007) (full-text).
This report found that:
- The rapidly evolving global communications infrastructure is increasingly interconnected through a system of systems that provides global services and connectivity. A global workforce, including those in non-allied nations, operates and maintains the infrastructure.
- As a result of globalization, the U.S. NS/EP communities, government operations, allies, many key businesses, and their global business partners are increasingly dependent on the availability of global communications and related services.
- Cross-sector dependencies and interdependencies (such as between telecommunications and electric power) create additional complexities, amplifying the difficulties of mitigation and effective repair when broad-scale disruptions occur.
- Cyber threats to global infrastructures may originate from international sources beyond the jurisdiction of U.S. and allied authorities.
- Attacks originating outside the territorial United States raise increasing concerns about the security and availability of domestic NS/EP communications and the global communications on which many key U.S. functions and economic interests rely.
- The sophistication and reach of the global communications infrastructure increase the complexity of the threat, whereas the adversary's barrier to entry is low as a result of anonymity, connectivity, and widespread availability of tools for creating disruptions.
- The U.S. Government's international NS/EP strategies, policies, and operational response frameworks are not sufficient to keep pace with globalization and technological convergence of PNs and private sector networks, nor do they adequately include private sector participation in these processes.
The report recommended that the President, in accordance with responsibilities and existing mechanisms established by Executive Order 12472, direct the following:
- Task the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to coordinate international planning and development with the appropriate Federal Agencies for adoption of a global framework incorporating operational protocols and response strategies. The framework must accomplish the following:
- Address physical and cyber events that would disrupt the availability of critical global infrastructure services.
- Ensure private sector participation in developing the framework to leverage extensive expertise and existing relationships.
- Support the use of identity management solutions that address NS/EP requirements for normal operations and all-hazards crisis response.
- Examine, with the help of private sector partners, existing U.S. laws and policies that could prevent service providers and other stakeholders from taking the necessary proactive measures to restore service and prevent harm to NS/EP users for government essential operations during a crisis.
- In the interim, task Federal Agencies to expand relationships and response coordination using formal and reciprocal agreements with Allied governments to include participation from selected international service providers and other stakeholders into existing joint U.S. Government and private-sector response and coordination processes and entities, such as the U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team and the National Coordinating Center.