The Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC) is an industry-wide standard-setting organization (SSO) that operated on a cooperative basis. The organization requires that its members participate in good faith. According to JEDEC policy and practice, members are expected to reveal the existence of any patents and patent applications that later might be enforced against those practicing the JEDEC standards. In addition, JEDEC members are obligated to offer assurances to license patented technologies on RAND terms, before members voted to adopt a standard that would incorporate those technologies. The intent of JEDEC policy and practice is to prevent anticompetitive patent hold-up.