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United States Edit


Definitions Edit

Intelligence is

[t]he result of the process of systematic gathering, evaluation, and synthesis of raw data on individuals or activities suspected of being or known to be criminal in nature. Intelligence is information that has been analyzed to determine its meaning and relevance. Information is compiled, analyzed, and/or disseminated in an effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activity. The product of the analysis of raw information related to crimes or crime patterns with respect to an identifiable person or group of persons in an effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor possible criminal activity.[1]
[t]he product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign nations, hostile or potentially hostile forces or elements, or areas of actual or potential operations. The term is also applied to the activity which results in the product and to the organizations engaged in such activity.[2]

The International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts (IALEIA) states that intelligence is an analytic process:

deriving meaning from fact. It is taking information collected in the course of an investigation, or from internal or external files, and arriving at something more than was evident before. This could be leads in a case, a more accurate view of a crime problem, a forecast of future crime levels, a hypothesis of who may have committed a crime or a strategy to prevent crime.[3]

Intelligence is information collected by the U.S. Intelligence Community and includes a wide variety of human and technical means. Intelligence has also been defined as "knowledge, organization, and activity."[4] As defined in Executive Order 12333, as amended, the term includes foreign intelligence and counterintelligence.

Intelligence collection disciplines Edit

Intelligence collection disciplines through which the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) collects intelligence are generally referred to as those which fall within national technical means or non-technical means. Technical means include signals intelligence (SIGINT), measurement and signatures intelligence (MASINT), and imagery intelligence (IMINT). Non-technical means include human intelligence (HUMINT) and open source intelligence (OSINT). Each of these collection disciplines is source-specific — that is, a technical platform or human source, generally managed by an agency or mission manager, collects intelligence that is used for national intelligence purposes.

Overview Edit

"The terms data, information, and intelligence are generally (mis)interpreted to have the same meaning. One manner of differentiating among these terms is the extent to which value has been added to the raw data regardless of whether it was collected through overt or clandestine means. The terms exist along a continuum, with data at the far left and intelligence at the far right; as one moves from left to right, additional value and context is added to discrete or posited facts to provide enhanced meaning to an ultimate consumer. Information collected clandestinely may or may not be of any inherently greater value than information collected through open source methods. Information collected is 'raw' until its sources have been evaluated, the information is combined or corroborated by other sources, and analytical and due diligence methodologies are applied to ascertain the information's value. Lack of such critical evaluations can lead to flawed 'intelligence' being provided to consumers who may take action based on the intelligence."[5]

References Edit

  1. Privacy, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties Compliance Verification for the Intelligence Enterprise, App. B, at 41.
  2. U.S. Department of Defense, Joint Pub. 1–02: DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Nov. 8, 2010, as amended through May 15, 2011) (full-text).
  3. International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts, Successful Law Enforcement Using Analytic Methods.
  4. Sherman Kent, Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy (1965).
  5. Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, Statutory Definitions, and Approaches, at 2 n.4.

See also Edit

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