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Information Quality Act of 2000 (sometimes referred to as the Data Quality Act), was enacted as Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001, Pub. L. No. 106-554 (Dec. 2000), codified at 44 U.S.C. §§3504(d)(1) and 3516.
The Act required the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to issue guidance to federal agencies designed to ensure the “quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity” of information disseminated to the public. It also required Federal agencies subject to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 to issue guidelines ensuring and maximizing the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of information including statistical information disseminated by the agency.
The OMB Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity of Information Disseminated by Federal Agencies; Republication, which implemented the IQA, define the term "dissemination" to mean “agency initiated or sponsored distribution of information to the public.” Public dissemination includes posting information on government websites and in government manuals that are distributed to the public. However, per the OMB Guidelines, “Dissemination does not include distribution limited to government employees.” Consequently, the IQA does not apply to records containing information about individuals that Federal agencies may share only internally or between agencies.
Although some observers said the IQA would improve the quality of agency science and regulation, others viewed the Act as a tool by which regulated parties could slow or even stop new health, safety, and environmental standards.