In October 1962, the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) began as an office within ARPA (now DARPA) that funded research in the field of computer science designed to create a strategic communication network to make messaging capabilities available to the U.S. government. The first head of that office was J.C.R. Licklider.
|“||IPTO has transformed itself several times to bring greater coherence to its research efforts and to respond to technological developments. NSF in 1967 established the Office of Computing Activities and in 1986 formed the Computer and Information Sciences and Engineering (CISE) Directorate to couple and coordinate support for research, education, and infrastructure in computer science.||”|