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Identity-related crime can be defined as a cycle with five distinct phases: (1) unauthorized or illegal acquisition of identifying data or items (e.g., cards or documents); (2) transfer of the initially acquired identifying data or documents; (3) manipulation of the data or items (e.g., through alteration, compilation, or forgery/counterfeiting); (4) transfer of the manipulated data or items; and (5) use of the data or items for fraud or concealment of criminal identity.
- ↑ See Criminal and Legal Affairs Subgroup, G8 Lyon-Roma Anti-Crime and Terrorism Group, Essential Elements of Criminal Laws to Address Identity-Related Crime (Feb. 2009) (Annex).