Government Accountability Office Edit
The Government Accountability Office's (GAO) biennial High-risk List identifies government programs that have greater vulnerability to fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement or need transformation to address economy, efficiency, or effectiveness challenges. The GAO has designated federal information security as a high-risk area since 1997; in 2003, it expanded this high-risk area to include protecting systems supporting the U.S. critical infrastructure.
Office of Management and Budget Edit
In August 2005, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) established a High-Risk List, which consisted of projects identified by federal agencies, with the assistance of OMB, as requiring special attention from oversight authorities and the highest levels of agency management. In June 2009, OMB replaced the High-isk List with a public website — known as the IT Dashboard — to further improve the transparency into and oversight of agencies' IT investments.