Hacktivism (an amalgam of the words " hacking" and " activism")
web sit-ins and virtual blockades, automated email bombs, web hacks, computer break-ins, and computer viruses and worms."
The earliest example of hacktivism predates the public Internet. In 1989 the
U.S. Department of Energy and NASA computers were penetrated by a group called Worms Against Nuclear Killers ( WANK).
The main practical limitations to hacktivism are that the longer the attack persists the more likely it is that counter-measures are developed and put in place, perpetrators identified, and groups penetrated by law enforcement investigators.
Activism, Hacktivism, and Cyberterrorism: The Internet as a Tool for Influencing Foreign Policy, at 241.
Cybercrime: Conceptual Issues for Congress and U.S. Law Enforcement.
ACSC 2015 Threat Report, Glossary, at 26.
Activism, Hacktivism, and Cyberterrorism: The Internet as a Tool for Influencing Foreign Policy, at 241. ↑
Reducing Systemic Cybersecurity Risk, at 32.
External reading Edit
Kent Anderson, "Hacktivism and Politically Motivated Computer Crime" (2008) ( full-text).