Geographic information is
coordinate and attribute data for location-based features, usually in the categories of point ( e.g., a well), line ( e.g., a road), polygon ( e.g., a forest), cell ( e.g., a raster-based "rectangle"), or coordinates ( e.g., the latitude- longitude of a point on the ground).
[g]eographic data or works without distinction, which may encompass, but is not limited to (1) location-based measurements and observations obtained through human cognition or through such technologies as satellite remote sensing, aerial photography, Global Positioning System, and mobile technologies; and (2) location-based information transformed as images, photographs, maps, models, and other visualizations. Geographic data and works are not strictly location-based but also may include, for example, spatial relationships, descriptions or attributes of geographic features, metadata, and additional types of information that are arranged, categorized, or accessed in reference to their geographic or spatial location. Such information is typically in digital form and may be contained in databases.
OMB Circular No. A-16, App. D ( full-text). ↑
Licensing Geographic Data and Services, Glossary, at 274.