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Definition Edit

A frame is "an area of a webpage that scrolls independently of the rest of the webpage."[1]

Overview (Internet) Edit

The use of frames allows a user's display to be divided into two or more simultaneously viewed Web pages. Each Web page displayed on the screen has full Web page functionality, including the ability to hyperlink to other pages. If a hyperlink to another Web page is executed from a framed Web page, the new page can be loaded into the same framed area of the screen or in one of the other framed areas. This option of changing one section of the screen by executing a hyperlink in another section of the screen can be very useful for indices and other navigational tools. A frame may also be used to position a static Web page configured without hyperlinks. Such a configuration is sometimes used for logos or advertisements that remain in position notwithstanding changes to other sections of the screen.

The display of frames generally includes borders between the frames, which create the appearance of distinct sections of the screen. These borders can be configured to allow each frame to be resized (by dragging the corner of the frame with the cursor) or to allow vertical or horizontal scrolling of a Web page that is larger than the frame display area. Some browsers allow frames to be viewed without borders. This can create seamless positioning of multiple Web pages on the screen at the same time. The look is very clean, and can even lead a user to believe that they are looking a single Web page.

Potential legal issues Edit

The ability of frames to present a seamless or nearly seamless compilation of Web pages, however, is not without its potential legal problems. If any of the individual Web pages included in a set of framed Web pages were to include a hyperlink to a third party's Web page, the combination of pages displayed from time to time could present an unintended result. For example, if a framed Web page with an athletic shoe manufacturer's logo across the top of the screen has hyperlinks to a third party's Web page, the framed Web page could potentially display an unaffiliated Web page with photographs of famous sports figures who are sponsored by competing shoe manufacturers across the bottom of the screen. Such a page could prompt complaints from the shoe manufacturers, the Web page owner, the pictured athletes or, perhaps, consumers.

An additional complication may arise because the display area for a Web page in a frame is smaller than a standard full page display. As a result, the framed Web page may not display all of its information. For example, a disclaimer or an advertisement located near the bottom of a Web page may be missing when the Web page is viewed in a frame. A Web page developer's complex and careful positioning of graphics and text within the confines of a single page display may lose its effectiveness when viewed in an area that is 70% of that size.

Unlike a standard Web page hyperlink, in which the primary Web page is completely removed from the user's screen prior to the display of the hyperlinked Web page, the use of frames can cause a third party's Web page to be displayed simultaneously with other pages, arguably creating a derivative work from the third party's Web page. Particular combinations of Web pages also could create the false impression of an affiliation, endorsement or sponsorship.

The situations mentioned above are only likely to occur in the event that a framed Web page includes an external hyperlink to a third party's Web page. The contents of a third party's Web page, including its hyperlinks, are subject to change at any time without notice; thus, the potential combinations of pages that may be displayed in a framed Web page with an external hyperlink cannot be controlled or predicted.

Frames are a very useful tool and can fill many important roles in Web page development. The use of frames may be one of the easiest ways to create a simple, clean approach to navigating through a complex website. Nonetheless, when creating a Web page using frames, caution should be exercised in using external hyperlinks.

References Edit

  1. FFIEC IT Examination Handbook, E-Banking, Appendix B: Glossary (full-text).

See also Edit

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