This report provides background information on the development and implementation of consumer protection mechanisms for online transactions. It assesses current trends and challenges in e-commerce for consumers with a view towards identifying where consumer protection may need to be strengthened or changed. It comprises two parts. Part one examines how e-commerce has evolved and assesses the role that international guidelines have played in shaping the trading environment. Part two identifies some of the key challenges facing consumers and policy makers as e-commerce evolves.