Traditional electrical meters were developed in the late 1800s as a means to modernize the billing of electrical use. The first alternating current (AC) kilowatt-hour meter was developed in 1889. Meters used throughout the 20th century operate on the same principles and must be read manually on a monthly or yearly basis. In 1972, a sensor monitoring system that used digital transmission for meter reading for all utilities was developed and was the beginning of Automatic Meter Reading (AMR). Early AMR systems consisted of walk-by or drive-by readings of electric customers' meters, collecting meter readings electronically and matching them to the appropriate accounts.
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