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To expedite the issuance of globally interoperable smart cards, Europay, MasterCard, and Visa (EMV) published the first version of standard card and transaction terminal specifications in 1995. The specifications were built on the ISO/IEC 7816 standard and serve as an expansion to accommodate debit and credit transactions.
An updated version of this specification, EMV 2000 version 4.0, was published in December 2000. EMV v4.0 consists of 4 books.
- Book 1, Application-Independent ICC to Terminal Interface Requirements, describes the minimum functionality required for integrated circuit cards and terminals to ensure correct operation and interoperability independent of the application to be used.
- Book 2, Security and Key Management, describes the minimum security functionality required for integrated circuit cards and terminals to ensure correct operation and interoperability. Additional requirements and recommendations are provided on online communication between ICC and issuer and the management of cryptographic keys at terminal, issuer and payment system level.
- Book 3, Application Specification, defines the terminal and integrated circuit card procedures necessary to effect a payment system transaction in an international interchange environment.
- Book 4, Cardholder, Attendant, and Acquirer Interface Requirements, defines the mandatory, recommended, and optional terminal requirements necessary to support the acceptance of integrated circuit cards in accordance with Books 1, 2 and 3.