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A series of laws enacted between 1996 and spring 2002 required the federal government to develop Chimera, an automated information system, to gather and share information among agencies about aliens seeking to enter or stay in the United States. The major requirements for the Chimera system were (1) biometric identifiers; (2) machine-readable visas, passports, and other travel and entry documents; and (3) interoperability among all State Department, INS, and federal law enforcement and intelligence agency systems that contain information about aliens. Chimera was to be used to screen applicants for visas and admission to the United States, identify inadmissible and deportable aliens, track lost and stolen passports, monitor foreign students studying in the United States, and help administer law enforcement and national security.
- ↑ See 8 U.S.C. §1365a and §1722. These laws' requirements reflect provisions of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (Pub. L. No. 104-208, div. C, §110, Sept. 30, 1996), the INS Data Management Improvement Act of 2000 (Pub. L. No. 106-215, June 15, 2000), the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act) (Pub. L. No. 107-56, §403(c) and §414, Oct. 26, 2001), and the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 (Pub. L. No. 107-173, May 14, 2002).
- ↑ The information in Chimera was to be accessible to federal law enforcement and intelligence officers who, under federal regulation, are responsible for investigating or identifying aliens (Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act, §202(a)(5) (8 U.S.C. §1722)), to federal law enforcement officials to identify and detain individuals who pose a threat to national security (USA PATRIOT Act, §414(b) (8 U.S.C. §1365a note)), and, at the discretion of the U.S. Attorney General, to federal, state, and local law enforcement officials for law enforcement purposes (INS Data Management Improvement Act, §2 (8 U.S.C. §1365a(f)(2)), amending the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, §110).