Beginning in the mid-1980s, compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM) rapidly became a popular means for publishing and distributing digital information. This acceptance process was enhanced as international standards were developed to ensure the interchange of CD-ROM discs across a variety of players. The conventional CD-ROM publishing process is complex and often requires access to commercial mastering facilities that achieve economies of scale only when adequate numbers of discs are produced. Hence, CD-ROM's utility in the production of only one or two discs was limited. This situation changed with the introduction of relatively low-cost CD-R equipment that records data directly onto individual discs in-house. A major advantage is that CD-R employs the same International Standards Organization (ISO) standards for physical media (ISO 10419) and file formats (ISO 9660) as CD-ROM. Adopting these standards greatly enhanced disc interchange and the ability to access information stored on CD-R discs.