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American National Standards Institute, "American National Standard–for Information Systems–Fingerprint Identification–Data Format for Information Interchange" (ANSI/NBS-ICST 1-1986).
The first version of the standard, ANSI/NBS-ICST 1-1986 was published by NIST (formerly the National Bureau of Standards) in 1986. It was a minutiae-based standard. Revisions to the standard were made in 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007. Updates to the standard were designed to be backward compatible, with new versions including additional biometric modalities and associated data. All of these versions use "Traditional" encoding.
In 2008, XML encoding of the standard was introduced, based upon the 2007 version. The 2007 and 2008 versions of the standard were designed to be the same except for the encoding. The XML encoding was developed using the naming conventions of the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM). Thus, this encoding is referred to as "NIEM-conformant XML."
In November 2011 a new version of the standard was approved. This version focused on the content of the transmission, with encoding rules handled as annexes. Thus, there is no need for separate versions of the standard as was the case for 2007 (Traditional format) and 2008 (NIEM-conformant XML). The 2011 version also includes additional modalities (DNA and plantar) as well as the extended feature set (EFS) for Type-9 record; forensic image markups for face and iris; new metadata fields such as geoposition of sample collection; biometric data hashing; an information assurance record; associated context record; original source record and data handling logs; images of all body parts in the Type-10 record and more.